- Allergic Conjunctivitis
- Behcet Disease
- Blepharoshalasis Dermatochalases
- Diabetic Retinopathy
- Ectropion (Eversion of the Eyelids)
- Entropion (Inversion of the Eyelids)
- Epiretinal Membrane
- The Anatomy Of The Eye
- Intraocular Bleddings
- Eyelid Inflammations
- Injuries In The Eye
- Lachrymal Duct Obstruction
- Herpetic Ceratitis
- Macular Hole
- Macular Edema
- Microbial Keratitis
- Microbial Conjunctivitis
- Optic Neuritis and Multiple Sclerosis
- Ptosis (Looseness Of The Eyelid)
- Color Blindness
- Retinal Detachment
- Retinal Embolism
- Retinitis Pigmentosa
- Yellow Spot Disease (ARMD)
- Thyroid Orbitopathy
- Keratopathy Caused By Bells Palsy
DEFINITION: It is the inflammation of the sclera, the white part of the eye.
SYMPTOMS AND FINDINGS: It is characterized by a severe pain in the eye not responding to painkillers and more perceivable in the morning. It may cause a local redness and sensitivity to light in the white part of the eye and sometimes a decreased vision.
Figure 1. Slit lamp appearance of diffuse (left) and nodular (right) episcleritis.
CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS: It mostly accompanies serious rheumatic and systemic diseases. Among the most common ones are rheumatoid arthritis, Wegener's granulomatosis, relapsing polychondritis, polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus, spondyloarthropathy, Behcet's Disease, sarcoidosis, and gout. Although rare, infectious eye diseases (herpes zoster, syphilis, lyme, leprosy, tuberculosis, etc.) may cause scleritis.
AUXILIARY INVESTIGATIONS AND DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is made through biomicroscopic examination. It is important that the patient is examined for systemic diseases.
TREATMENT: Although topical steroids alleviate local symptoms, they are not quite effective in the clinical progress of the disease. Systemic steroids and NSAIDs are used. Steroid injections, cytotoxic agents or immunemodulators can be added to the treatment, depending on the clinical severity.