- Allergic Conjunctivitis
- Behcet Disease
- Blepharoshalasis Dermatochalases
- Diabetic Retinopathy
- Ectropion (Eversion of the Eyelids)
- Entropion (Inversion of the Eyelids)
- Epiretinal Membrane
- The Anatomy Of The Eye
- Intraocular Bleddings
- Eyelid Inflammations
- Injuries In The Eye
- Lachrymal Duct Obstruction
- Herpetic Ceratitis
- Macular Hole
- Macular Edema
- Microbial Keratitis
- Microbial Conjunctivitis
- Optic Neuritis and Multiple Sclerosis
- Ptosis (Looseness Of The Eyelid)
- Color Blindness
- Retinal Detachment
- Retinal Embolism
- Retinitis Pigmentosa
- Yellow Spot Disease (ARMD)
- Thyroid Orbitopathy
- Keratopathy Caused By Bells Palsy
DEFINITION: In front of the macular area enabling central vision, a shiny and transparent membrane-like tissue develops over time. This is called the epiretinal membrane or epimacular membrane.
Figure 1. Preoperative (left) and postoperative (middle) optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of a patient operated with the diagnosis of epiretinal membrane at our hospital. Macula OCT image of a healthy individual (right).
RISK FACTORS: In most epiretinal membrane cases, there are no accompanying eye diseases; it may emerge with advanced age (idiopathic epiretinal membrane). In some cases, it may develop after retinal detachment, retinal vessel diseases, eye trauma, intraocular inflammations, retinal laser treatment, and vitreoretinal surgery (secondary epiretinal membrane).
FINDINGS: The most common finding is the decrease in visual sharpness. Other important findings are seeing objects differently to how they are, for instance faulted (metamorphopsia), bigger (macropsia), or smaller (micropsia).
Figure 2. The Amsler grid can help detect early signs of retinal disease and monitor changes in vision after diagnosis. A demonstration of how a healthy eye (left) and an eye with epiretinal membrane (right) will see Amsler grid.