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Eye Conditions and Treatments

Cataract

DEFINITION: Cataract is the blurring of the eye lens after losing its transparency.Figure 1. Demonstration of a healthy eye (left), an eye with cataract (middle) and steps of phacoemulsification surgery (right)CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS: The most common type of this disease is that which is due to aging. There are also other types accompanying systemic diseases like diabetes, myotonic dystrophia, atopic dermatitis, and neurofibromatosis-2. Secondary cataracts can be seen in eye diseases: chronic uveitis, acute angle closure glaucoma, high myopia, and hereditary fundus dystrophia. Secondary cataracts can also be found in eye traumas due to some systemic medications. There are genetic cataracts and congenital cataracts. In such cases, underlying systemic diseases should be investigated.Figure 2. Anterior segment appearance of a patient diagnosed with mature cataract prior to surgery (left), following phocoemulsification and multifocal intraocular lens implnatation (right).TREATMENT: The treatment…
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Intraocular Bleddings

DEFINITION: These are the bleedings in the jelly-like fluid (vitreous) inside the eye.RISK FACTORS AND CAUSES: Diabetic retinopathy due to diabetes, retinal embolism, retinal ruptures, hypertension, retinal vacular diseases, and eye injuries are among the most common causes.Figure 1. Posterior segment appearance of a patient diagnosed with intraocular hemorrhage secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (left).  B-scan ultrasound image of a patient diagnosed with dense vitreous hemorrhage.FINDINGS: Sudden loss of vision or decrease in vision and web-like floaters before the eye may occur depending on the severity of the bleeding.DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: The disease is easily detected through retinal examination (ophthalmoscopy). The most frequently used method to obtain detailed information about the cause of the bleeding is ocular ultrasonography.TREATMENT: Vitrectomy operation is carried when there is long-term bleeding or at an early period depending on the underlying cause. Bleeding…
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Ptosis (Looseness Of The Eyelid)

DEFINITION: It is the looseness of the eyelid due to a malfunction of the muscle supporting the eyelid congenitally or later in life.Figure 1. Preoperative (left) and postoperative (right) external appearance of patient operated with the diagnosis of congenital ptosis at our hospital.CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS: The eyelid may move downward due to a developmental disorder of the eyelid muscle, palsy of the nerves here, detachment of the muscle because of aging or the mechanical effect of  masses in the eyelid.FINDINGS: Findings change according to the cause of the eyelid looseness. In congenital ptosis, both opening and closing the eyelid are dysfunctional, while in ptosis caused by aging, only opening the eyelid is dysfunctional. In both cases, the eye seems as if it is smaller.Figure 2. Preoperative (left) and postoperative (right) external appearance of patient operated with the diagnosis of  senile ptosis at our hospital.DIAGNOSIS: There is a standard measuring method to measure…
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Refractive Laser Surgery

Patients who suffer from myopes, hypermetropy, astigmatism can get rid of their contact lenses and glasses permanently with femtosecond laser aided intraocular lens surgery.In our hospital, all the diagnostic devices that are concerned with refractive surgery including femtosecond laser, excimer laser are present. Treatment for each individual patient is decided after extensive eye check-up along with special diagnoses concerning laser and lens surgery in accord with the patient’s expectation and applied by our experienced doctors.Breakage defects are divided into four categories: myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Figure 1. Demonstration of differernt types of refractive surgery.In myopia, the anterior-to-posterior diameter of an eye is longer than the breakage power of the eye, so beams coming into the eye focus on a point before the retina. People with myopia see close-range clearly, while they cannot see the far images clearly. In hyperopia, the anterior-to-posterior…
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Vitrectomy Surgery

Vitrectomy surgeries include cleaning the gel-like material filling the eye (vitreous) and related operations. Vitrectomy is accepted as a treatment method for a number.Figure 1. Fundus photography of a patient treated with the diagnosis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy prior to argon laser  (left) and following the treatment (right). The pale white dots on the retinal photograph below are laser spots.of visual diseases. These diseases may include intraocular bleeding, advanced-stage retinopathies due to diabetes, macular hole, macular lines, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign objects, infections after visual surgeries, falling of the lens into the eye, intraocular tumors, and advanced-stage premature retinopathies. The operation is made through three holes opened in the white part of the eye after it is anesthetized or after general anesthesia from the side of the eye.  These three holes are used to inject sterile fluid into the eye, illumination, and to perform the…
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