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Eye Conditions and Treatments

Intraocular Bleddings

DEFINITION: These are the bleedings in the jelly-like fluid (vitreous) inside the eye.RISK FACTORS AND CAUSES: Diabetic retinopathy due to diabetes, retinal embolism, retinal ruptures, hypertension, retinal vacular diseases, and eye injuries are among the most common causes.Figure 1. Posterior segment appearance of a patient diagnosed with intraocular hemorrhage secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (left).  B-scan ultrasound image of a patient diagnosed with dense vitreous hemorrhage.FINDINGS: Sudden loss of vision or decrease in vision and web-like floaters before the eye may occur depending on the severity of the bleeding.DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: The disease is easily detected through retinal examination (ophthalmoscopy). The most frequently used method to obtain detailed information about the cause of the bleeding is ocular ultrasonography.TREATMENT: Vitrectomy operation is carried when there is long-term bleeding or at an early period depending on the underlying cause. Bleeding…

Injections Of Medication Into Eye

Injections into the vitreous made in order for the medication to directly reach the eye are called intravitreal injections.Injecting medication into the vitreous has many important advantages. Even an intravitreal medication given in quite a small dose rapidly reaches the desired tissue. Since the application is made into the eye, it has a very small chance of adversely affecting other tissues of the body. The administered amount is very small and the rate of mixing into the bloodstream is quite low. Most patients are afraid of having their eye injected. Actually injection only takes a few seconds and does not cause any pain because it is carried out with very thin needles.  The operation starts with the application of local anesthetic drops to anesthetize the tissues.  A small amount of anesthetic medication is administered into the injection point with a thin needle. Later the medication is injected. The most important risk of this operation is an intraocular infection…

Yellow Spot Disease (ARMD)

Age-related Macular DegenerationThis disease occurs in the macula (yellow spot) - the central viewing point of the eye.Figure 1. Demonstration of dry and wet types of senile macular degeneration.It is known as yellow spot disease colloquially. It has two types: wet and dry. The dry type is more common. This disease is characterized by the emergence of yellow-colored accumulations called drusen. It is slow in progress. Vision is slowly disrupted over the years. The wet type constitutes 10-15% of the patients and it may cause sudden and serious loss of vision. This disease is characterized by the formation of new vessels underneath the retina. If these vessels are not treated, they destroy the visual cells in the retina, thus causing an irreversible loss of vision.Figure 2. Preoperative (upper) and postoperative (lower) optical coherence tomogaphy images of a patient who received anti-VEGF injection for wet age-related macular degeneration.The basic risk factor is advanced age. It is more…

Retinal Detachment

DEFINITION: By covering the internal part of the eye, the retina is the layer which communicates with the brain (the network layer) by signalling the vision through the optic nerve. The vitreous, which fills the inside of the eye is of a gel consistency and with ageing or as a result of some eye diseases, it loses the properties of vitreous tissue and starts to liquefy. As a result, the retina separates from its points of attachment. Most of the time, no problems develop during this process, but occasionally during this separation, one or more areas of the retina may be torn. The liquefied vitreous passing from these torn areas may separate from the retinal layer and the disease known as retinal detachment develops. Vision is permanently severely affected and thus this disease must be treated promptly.Figure 1. Fundus photography of a patient diagnosed with regmatogen retinal detachment (left) and the other healthy eye of the same patient (right).CAUSES and RISK FACTORS: The most significant…

Vitrectomy Surgery

Vitrectomy surgeries include cleaning the gel-like material filling the eye (vitreous) and related operations. Vitrectomy is accepted as a treatment method for a number.Figure 1. Fundus photography of a patient treated with the diagnosis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy prior to argon laser  (left) and following the treatment (right). The pale white dots on the retinal photograph below are laser spots.of visual diseases. These diseases may include intraocular bleeding, advanced-stage retinopathies due to diabetes, macular hole, macular lines, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign objects, infections after visual surgeries, falling of the lens into the eye, intraocular tumors, and advanced-stage premature retinopathies. The operation is made through three holes opened in the white part of the eye after it is anesthetized or after general anesthesia from the side of the eye.  These three holes are used to inject sterile fluid into the eye, illumination, and to perform the…