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Eye Conditions and Treatments

Macular Hole

DEFINITION: This hole develops in the center of the macula which enables the central vision. It has four phases. It mostly emerges by the detachment of the vitreus from the macula due to aging. It occurs in 3 cases out of 1000. Once one of the eyes is affected, the risk of development in the other eye within 5 years is 10%.Figure 1. Preoperative (left) and postoperative (right) Multicolor optical coherence tomography images of a patient operated for full thickness macular hole at our hospital.RISK FACTORS: It mostly affects individuals who have no eye diseases and who are over 50 years of age. It is more common in women. It may also develop due to high myopia, trauma, intraocular inflammation, retinal detachment and other eye diseases.FINDINGS: The disease starts with distorted and blurred vision in the center of vision. With the expansion of the hole over weeks and months, central vision is seriously affected.Figure 2. Preoperative (left) and postoperative (right) B scan optical coherence…

Yellow Spot Disease (ARMD)

Age-related Macular DegenerationThis disease occurs in the macula (yellow spot) - the central viewing point of the eye.Figure 1. Demonstration of dry and wet types of senile macular degeneration.It is known as yellow spot disease colloquially. It has two types: wet and dry. The dry type is more common. This disease is characterized by the emergence of yellow-colored accumulations called drusen. It is slow in progress. Vision is slowly disrupted over the years. The wet type constitutes 10-15% of the patients and it may cause sudden and serious loss of vision. This disease is characterized by the formation of new vessels underneath the retina. If these vessels are not treated, they destroy the visual cells in the retina, thus causing an irreversible loss of vision.Figure 2. Preoperative (upper) and postoperative (lower) optical coherence tomogaphy images of a patient who received anti-VEGF injection for wet age-related macular degeneration.The basic risk factor is advanced age. It is more…

Retina Diseases and Treatment

By covering the internal part of the eye, the retina is the layer which communicates with the brain (the network layer) by signalling the vision through the optic nerve. The vitreous, which fills the inside of the eye is of a gel consistency and with ageing or as a result of some eye diseases, it loses the properties of vitreous tissue and starts to liquefy. As a result, the retina separates from its points of attachment. Most of the time, no problems develop during this process, but occasionally during this separation, one or more areas of the retina may be torn. The liquefied vitreous passing from these torn areas may separate from the retinal layer and the disease known as retinal detachment develops. Vision is permanently severely affected and thus this disease must be treated promptly.Figure 1. Argon laser photocoagulation treatment.The most significant cause is ageing. In addition, other risk factors are known to be having undergone cataract surgery, application of YAG laser capsulotomy…

Optic Coherence Tomography

Optic coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging method, allowing the macula and optic nerve head in particular to be seen. It is ot an invasive method. OCT provides high-resolution information about the internal structure of the retina using the reflecting properties of tissues helped by close laser light beyond red. As the eye is composed of clear material from the front to the back as far as the macula, it is possible by this method to obtain information in the same way as taking a live biopsy slice. According to the degree of reflection of the retaina structure, slices are coloured differently and each cell layer of the retina can be seen separately.Figure 1. Optical coherence tomography appearance of cystoid macular oedema(upper) and full thickness macular hole (lower).Figure 2. Optical coherence tomography appearance of epiretinal membrane (upper) and choroidal neovascularization secondary to wet age-related macular degeneration (lower).Thus, we can obtain structural information about…

Blepharoshalasis Dermatochalases

DEFINITION: It is the loosening and slackening of eyelids because of bulking of eyelids in the form of attacks (blepharoshalasis) or loosening of eyelid tissues due to aging (dermathochalases).CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS: It often occurs due to aging.DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is made through physical examination.TREATMENT: Treatment is carried out by surgically removing the slackened skin or removing some of the fat moving forward, if any.Figure 1. External appearance of a patients operated with the diagnosis of dermatochalasis prior to surgery (left) and 1 month following surgery (right).
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