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Eye Conditions and Treatments

Retina Diseases and Treatment

By covering the internal part of the eye, the retina is the layer which communicates with the brain (the network layer) by signalling the vision through the optic nerve. The vitreous, which fills the inside of the eye is of a gel consistency and with ageing or as a result of some eye diseases, it loses the properties of vitreous tissue and starts to liquefy. As a result, the retina separates from its points of attachment. Most of the time, no problems develop during this process, but occasionally during this separation, one or more areas of the retina may be torn. The liquefied vitreous passing from these torn areas may separate from the retinal layer and the disease known as retinal detachment develops. Vision is permanently severely affected and thus this disease must be treated promptly.Figure 1. Argon laser photocoagulation treatment.The most significant cause is ageing. In addition, other risk factors are known to be having undergone cataract surgery, application of YAG laser capsulotomy…


DEFINITION: Disruption to the internal eye fluid or increased resistance to the external flow results in internal pressure more than the eye can tolerate and thereby a group of diseases characterised by irreversible damage to the optic nerve.Figure 1. Appearance of the normal optic disc (left) and glaucomatous optic disc (right).SYMPTOMS AND FINDINGS: In open angle type glaucoma, the disease gives no indications until the advanced stage at which vision loss develops. The progressive course of the disease is generally slow and initially the patient is not aware of impairments in the field of vision.In acute closed angle type glaucoma the prevention of internal eye fluid circulation results in high levels of internal eye pressure. In these cases, clouded vision, coloured circles around light, severe pain in and around the eye, redness of the eye and nausea and vomiting may be seen. In congenital glaucoma cases, there are findings of watering of the eyes, large diameter cornea and loss of…

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes is a veinlet disease caused by the increase of blood sugar resulting from the deficiency or ineffectiveness of the insulin hormone secreted from the pancreatic tissue. Type-1 diabetes generally starts before the age of 30 due to insulin deficiency and insulin injections are required. Type-2 diabetes generally starts after the age of 40 due to disorders in insulin production or use in the body. Since diabetes is a systemic disease, it causes problems in a number of organs if not treated and it causes serious problems in the eye, kidney and nerve tissues, which are rich in veins. Diabetic retinopathy is a disease that occurs due to affected veins of the retina, which is the nervous layer and the first point of perceiving vision, from diabetes and that causes blindness if not treated. The risk of having diabetic retinopathy of a 15-year diabetes patient is more than 80%.Figure 1. Fundus photography of a patient treated with the diagnosis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy…

Cataract Treatment

Cataract is the deterioration in the structure of the natural lens of the eye, thereby becoming blurred by losing its transparency. Generally it occurs due to aging after the age of 55-60.Figure 1. Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation.Cataract surgery is the operation to remove this lens which has lost its transparency and replace it with an artificial one. It is a one-day surgical operation, and patients are generally discharged from hospital a few hours after the surgery and they can go back to their daily lives in a short while. FACO method (known as laser surgery by the general public) is mostly used today for cataract surgery. In this method, a small cut 2-3 mm in size is made on the cornea. With the help of the FACO device, vibrations are created in this cut and the blurred cataract material inside the lens capsule is broken into pieces using sound waves that liquidize the tissues and these broken pieces are cleared out by the device and replaced by an artificial…

Macular Hole

DEFINITION: This hole develops in the center of the macula which enables the central vision. It has four phases. It mostly emerges by the detachment of the vitreus from the macula due to aging. It occurs in 3 cases out of 1000. Once one of the eyes is affected, the risk of development in the other eye within 5 years is 10%.Figure 1. Preoperative (left) and postoperative (right) Multicolor optical coherence tomography images of a patient operated for full thickness macular hole at our hospital.RISK FACTORS: It mostly affects individuals who have no eye diseases and who are over 50 years of age. It is more common in women. It may also develop due to high myopia, trauma, intraocular inflammation, retinal detachment and other eye diseases.FINDINGS: The disease starts with distorted and blurred vision in the center of vision. With the expansion of the hole over weeks and months, central vision is seriously affected.Figure 2. Preoperative (left) and postoperative (right) B scan optical coherence…