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Eye Conditions and Treatments

Cataract

DEFINITION: Cataract is the blurring of the eye lens after losing its transparency.Figure 1. Demonstration of a healthy eye (left), an eye with cataract (middle) and steps of phacoemulsification surgery (right)CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS: The most common type of this disease is that which is due to aging. There are also other types accompanying systemic diseases like diabetes, myotonic dystrophia, atopic dermatitis, and neurofibromatosis-2. Secondary cataracts can be seen in eye diseases: chronic uveitis, acute angle closure glaucoma, high myopia, and hereditary fundus dystrophia. Secondary cataracts can also be found in eye traumas due to some systemic medications. There are genetic cataracts and congenital cataracts. In such cases, underlying systemic diseases should be investigated.Figure 2. Anterior segment appearance of a patient diagnosed with mature cataract prior to surgery (left), following phocoemulsification and multifocal intraocular lens implnatation (right).TREATMENT: The treatment…
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Macular Edema

DEFINITION: The macular edema center is one of the most common causes of loss of vision. In the macula, liquid is accumulated in the retina. Edema takes the form of intra-retinal cysts, and this is called cystoid macular edema. When edema develops, the central vision of the patient is disrupted.RISK FACTORS AND CAUSES: It may be related to cataract surgery, macular degeneration due to aging, uveitis, diabetes, retinal embolism, or medication toxicity. Following cataract surgey, cystoid macular edema, with a possibility of 1-3%, emerges occurs 2-4 months within 1 year.Figure 1. Macular optical coherence tomography image of a healthy eye.FINDINGS: It is characterized by blurred vision and reduced central vision. However, since this clinical picture is not unique to any specific disease, the ophthalmologist should carry out an examination in detail for diagnosis.DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: Diagnosis can be made through eye examination.  The most common diagnosis method is to examine the bottom…
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Cataract Treatment

Cataract is the deterioration in the structure of the natural lens of the eye, thereby becoming blurred by losing its transparency. Generally it occurs due to aging after the age of 55-60.Figure 1. Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation.Cataract surgery is the operation to remove this lens which has lost its transparency and replace it with an artificial one. It is a one-day surgical operation, and patients are generally discharged from hospital a few hours after the surgery and they can go back to their daily lives in a short while. FACO method (known as laser surgery by the general public) is mostly used today for cataract surgery. In this method, a small cut 2-3 mm in size is made on the cornea. With the help of the FACO device, vibrations are created in this cut and the blurred cataract material inside the lens capsule is broken into pieces using sound waves that liquidize the tissues and these broken pieces are cleared out by the device and replaced by an artificial…
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Injections Of Medication Into Eye

Injections into the vitreous made in order for the medication to directly reach the eye are called intravitreal injections.Injecting medication into the vitreous has many important advantages. Even an intravitreal medication given in quite a small dose rapidly reaches the desired tissue. Since the application is made into the eye, it has a very small chance of adversely affecting other tissues of the body. The administered amount is very small and the rate of mixing into the bloodstream is quite low. Most patients are afraid of having their eye injected. Actually injection only takes a few seconds and does not cause any pain because it is carried out with very thin needles.  The operation starts with the application of local anesthetic drops to anesthetize the tissues.  A small amount of anesthetic medication is administered into the injection point with a thin needle. Later the medication is injected. The most important risk of this operation is an intraocular infection…
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Macular Hole

DEFINITION: This hole develops in the center of the macula which enables the central vision. It has four phases. It mostly emerges by the detachment of the vitreus from the macula due to aging. It occurs in 3 cases out of 1000. Once one of the eyes is affected, the risk of development in the other eye within 5 years is 10%.Figure 1. Preoperative (left) and postoperative (right) Multicolor optical coherence tomography images of a patient operated for full thickness macular hole at our hospital.RISK FACTORS: It mostly affects individuals who have no eye diseases and who are over 50 years of age. It is more common in women. It may also develop due to high myopia, trauma, intraocular inflammation, retinal detachment and other eye diseases.FINDINGS: The disease starts with distorted and blurred vision in the center of vision. With the expansion of the hole over weeks and months, central vision is seriously affected.Figure 2. Preoperative (left) and postoperative (right) B scan optical coherence…
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