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Eye Conditions and Treatments

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes is a veinlet disease caused by the increase of blood sugar resulting from the deficiency or ineffectiveness of the insulin hormone secreted from the pancreatic tissue. Type-1 diabetes generally starts before the age of 30 due to insulin deficiency and insulin injections are required. Type-2 diabetes generally starts after the age of 40 due to disorders in insulin production or use in the body. Since diabetes is a systemic disease, it causes problems in a number of organs if not treated and it causes serious problems in the eye, kidney and nerve tissues, which are rich in veins. Diabetic retinopathy is a disease that occurs due to affected veins of the retina, which is the nervous layer and the first point of perceiving vision, from diabetes and that causes blindness if not treated. The risk of having diabetic retinopathy of a 15-year diabetes patient is more than 80%.Figure 1. Fundus photography of a patient treated with the diagnosis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy…


DEFINITION: Cataract is the blurring of the eye lens after losing its transparency.Figure 1. Demonstration of a healthy eye (left), an eye with cataract (middle) and steps of phacoemulsification surgery (right)CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS: The most common type of this disease is that which is due to aging. There are also other types accompanying systemic diseases like diabetes, myotonic dystrophia, atopic dermatitis, and neurofibromatosis-2. Secondary cataracts can be seen in eye diseases: chronic uveitis, acute angle closure glaucoma, high myopia, and hereditary fundus dystrophia. Secondary cataracts can also be found in eye traumas due to some systemic medications. There are genetic cataracts and congenital cataracts. In such cases, underlying systemic diseases should be investigated.Figure 2. Anterior segment appearance of a patient diagnosed with mature cataract prior to surgery (left), following phocoemulsification and multifocal intraocular lens implnatation (right).TREATMENT: The treatment…


It is a clinical condition resulting from inadequate secretion of tears or adequate secretion of tears but with deteriorated stability.It causes stinging, irritation, sensitivity to light, dryness, paradoxical watering, and blurred vision. Redness in the eyelid and adhesive fibers may occur in advanced cases.It is more common in advanced ages and women. A number of systemic medications used for a long time (antihypertensive drugs, antidepressants, etc.) may cause eye dryness. Figure 1. Tear breakup time (TBUT) is a clinical test used to assess for evaporative dry eye disease. Dry spots ( tear film break up) are indicated by dark areas that appear on the cornea.Eye dryness can also be seen in autoimmune diseases accompanied by mouth dryness and arthritis. Structural or functional disorders of eyelids, chronic eyelash-base inflammations, and contact lenses are among the causes of eye dryness.Diagnosis can be made through the medical history of the patient and biomicroscopic method.If…

Retina Diseases and Treatment

By covering the internal part of the eye, the retina is the layer which communicates with the brain (the network layer) by signalling the vision through the optic nerve. The vitreous, which fills the inside of the eye is of a gel consistency and with ageing or as a result of some eye diseases, it loses the properties of vitreous tissue and starts to liquefy. As a result, the retina separates from its points of attachment. Most of the time, no problems develop during this process, but occasionally during this separation, one or more areas of the retina may be torn. The liquefied vitreous passing from these torn areas may separate from the retinal layer and the disease known as retinal detachment develops. Vision is permanently severely affected and thus this disease must be treated promptly.Figure 1. Argon laser photocoagulation treatment.The most significant cause is ageing. In addition, other risk factors are known to be having undergone cataract surgery, application of YAG laser capsulotomy…

Fundus Fluorescein Angiography

Fundus fluorescein angiography (retina angiography) is a means of photographing the retina vascular system enabled by enlarging the pupils with drops and then administering up to 5cc fluorescein dye in the arm which is visible in the eye within 8-10 seconds. It is used to aid the opthalmologist in diagnosing retinal diseases and showing the areas to be treated. It has no properties of opening the vessels or treatment. Some patients may feel nauseous during the procedure. Very rarely there may be severe side effects associated with an allergic reaction. For up to 2 days after the procedure, the skin will have a yellow colour and urine will be darker. It is not recommended for use on patients with serious liver or kidney diseases or those who are pregnant.Figure 1. Fundus fluorescein angiography imaging of a healthy individual (left) and a patient with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (right).
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