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Eye Conditions and Treatments

Retinal Detachment

DEFINITION: By covering the internal part of the eye, the retina is the layer which communicates with the brain (the network layer) by signalling the vision through the optic nerve. The vitreous, which fills the inside of the eye is of a gel consistency and with ageing or as a result of some eye diseases, it loses the properties of vitreous tissue and starts to liquefy. As a result, the retina separates from its points of attachment. Most of the time, no problems develop during this process, but occasionally during this separation, one or more areas of the retina may be torn. The liquefied vitreous passing from these torn areas may separate from the retinal layer and the disease known as retinal detachment develops. Vision is permanently severely affected and thus this disease must be treated promptly.Figure 1. Fundus photography of a patient diagnosed with regmatogen retinal detachment (left) and the other healthy eye of the same patient (right).CAUSES and RISK FACTORS: The most significant…
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Cataract

DEFINITION: Cataract is the blurring of the eye lens after losing its transparency.Figure 1. Demonstration of a healthy eye (left), an eye with cataract (middle) and steps of phacoemulsification surgery (right)CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS: The most common type of this disease is that which is due to aging. There are also other types accompanying systemic diseases like diabetes, myotonic dystrophia, atopic dermatitis, and neurofibromatosis-2. Secondary cataracts can be seen in eye diseases: chronic uveitis, acute angle closure glaucoma, high myopia, and hereditary fundus dystrophia. Secondary cataracts can also be found in eye traumas due to some systemic medications. There are genetic cataracts and congenital cataracts. In such cases, underlying systemic diseases should be investigated.Figure 2. Anterior segment appearance of a patient diagnosed with mature cataract prior to surgery (left), following phocoemulsification and multifocal intraocular lens implnatation (right).TREATMENT: The treatment…
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Refractive Laser Surgery

Patients who suffer from myopes, hypermetropy, astigmatism can get rid of their contact lenses and glasses permanently with femtosecond laser aided intraocular lens surgery.In our hospital, all the diagnostic devices that are concerned with refractive surgery including femtosecond laser, excimer laser are present. Treatment for each individual patient is decided after extensive eye check-up along with special diagnoses concerning laser and lens surgery in accord with the patient’s expectation and applied by our experienced doctors.Breakage defects are divided into four categories: myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Figure 1. Demonstration of differernt types of refractive surgery.In myopia, the anterior-to-posterior diameter of an eye is longer than the breakage power of the eye, so beams coming into the eye focus on a point before the retina. People with myopia see close-range clearly, while they cannot see the far images clearly. In hyperopia, the anterior-to-posterior…
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Glaucoma

DEFINITION: Disruption to the internal eye fluid or increased resistance to the external flow results in internal pressure more than the eye can tolerate and thereby a group of diseases characterised by irreversible damage to the optic nerve.Figure 1. Appearance of the normal optic disc (left) and glaucomatous optic disc (right).SYMPTOMS AND FINDINGS: In open angle type glaucoma, the disease gives no indications until the advanced stage at which vision loss develops. The progressive course of the disease is generally slow and initially the patient is not aware of impairments in the field of vision.In acute closed angle type glaucoma the prevention of internal eye fluid circulation results in high levels of internal eye pressure. In these cases, clouded vision, coloured circles around light, severe pain in and around the eye, redness of the eye and nausea and vomiting may be seen. In congenital glaucoma cases, there are findings of watering of the eyes, large diameter cornea and loss of…
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Yellow Spot Disease (ARMD)

Age-related Macular DegenerationThis disease occurs in the macula (yellow spot) - the central viewing point of the eye.Figure 1. Demonstration of dry and wet types of senile macular degeneration.It is known as yellow spot disease colloquially. It has two types: wet and dry. The dry type is more common. This disease is characterized by the emergence of yellow-colored accumulations called drusen. It is slow in progress. Vision is slowly disrupted over the years. The wet type constitutes 10-15% of the patients and it may cause sudden and serious loss of vision. This disease is characterized by the formation of new vessels underneath the retina. If these vessels are not treated, they destroy the visual cells in the retina, thus causing an irreversible loss of vision.Figure 2. Preoperative (upper) and postoperative (lower) optical coherence tomogaphy images of a patient who received anti-VEGF injection for wet age-related macular degeneration.The basic risk factor is advanced age. It is more…
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