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Eye Conditions and Treatments

Epiretinal Membrane

DEFINITION: In front of the macular area enabling central vision, a shiny and transparent membrane-like tissue develops over time. This is called the epiretinal membrane or epimacular membrane.Figure 1. Preoperative (left) and postoperative (middle) optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of a patient operated with the diagnosis of epiretinal membrane at our hospital. Macula OCT image of a healthy individual (right).RISK FACTORS: In most epiretinal membrane cases, there are no accompanying eye diseases; it may emerge with  advanced age (idiopathic epiretinal membrane). In some cases, it may develop after retinal detachment, retinal vessel diseases, eye trauma, intraocular inflammations, retinal laser treatment, and vitreoretinal surgery (secondary epiretinal membrane).FINDINGS: The most common finding is the decrease in visual sharpness. Other important findings are seeing objects differently to how they are, for instance faulted (metamorphopsia), bigger (macropsia), or smaller…

Retina Diseases and Treatment

By covering the internal part of the eye, the retina is the layer which communicates with the brain (the network layer) by signalling the vision through the optic nerve. The vitreous, which fills the inside of the eye is of a gel consistency and with ageing or as a result of some eye diseases, it loses the properties of vitreous tissue and starts to liquefy. As a result, the retina separates from its points of attachment. Most of the time, no problems develop during this process, but occasionally during this separation, one or more areas of the retina may be torn. The liquefied vitreous passing from these torn areas may separate from the retinal layer and the disease known as retinal detachment develops. Vision is permanently severely affected and thus this disease must be treated promptly.Figure 1. Argon laser photocoagulation treatment.The most significant cause is ageing. In addition, other risk factors are known to be having undergone cataract surgery, application of YAG laser capsulotomy…

Yellow Spot Disease (ARMD)

Age-related Macular DegenerationThis disease occurs in the macula (yellow spot) - the central viewing point of the eye.Figure 1. Demonstration of dry and wet types of senile macular degeneration.It is known as yellow spot disease colloquially. It has two types: wet and dry. The dry type is more common. This disease is characterized by the emergence of yellow-colored accumulations called drusen. It is slow in progress. Vision is slowly disrupted over the years. The wet type constitutes 10-15% of the patients and it may cause sudden and serious loss of vision. This disease is characterized by the formation of new vessels underneath the retina. If these vessels are not treated, they destroy the visual cells in the retina, thus causing an irreversible loss of vision.Figure 2. Preoperative (upper) and postoperative (lower) optical coherence tomogaphy images of a patient who received anti-VEGF injection for wet age-related macular degeneration.The basic risk factor is advanced age. It is more…

Optic Coherence Tomography

Optic coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging method, allowing the macula and optic nerve head in particular to be seen. It is ot an invasive method. OCT provides high-resolution information about the internal structure of the retina using the reflecting properties of tissues helped by close laser light beyond red. As the eye is composed of clear material from the front to the back as far as the macula, it is possible by this method to obtain information in the same way as taking a live biopsy slice. According to the degree of reflection of the retaina structure, slices are coloured differently and each cell layer of the retina can be seen separately.Figure 1. Optical coherence tomography appearance of cystoid macular oedema(upper) and full thickness macular hole (lower).Figure 2. Optical coherence tomography appearance of epiretinal membrane (upper) and choroidal neovascularization secondary to wet age-related macular degeneration (lower).Thus, we can obtain structural information about…

Vitrectomy Surgery

Vitrectomy surgeries include cleaning the gel-like material filling the eye (vitreous) and related operations. Vitrectomy is accepted as a treatment method for a number.Figure 1. Fundus photography of a patient treated with the diagnosis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy prior to argon laser  (left) and following the treatment (right). The pale white dots on the retinal photograph below are laser spots.of visual diseases. These diseases may include intraocular bleeding, advanced-stage retinopathies due to diabetes, macular hole, macular lines, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign objects, infections after visual surgeries, falling of the lens into the eye, intraocular tumors, and advanced-stage premature retinopathies. The operation is made through three holes opened in the white part of the eye after it is anesthetized or after general anesthesia from the side of the eye.  These three holes are used to inject sterile fluid into the eye, illumination, and to perform the…