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Eye Conditions and Treatments

Retinal Embolism

DEFINITION: There is a wide-ranging vascular system consisting of arteries and veins in the retina. Obstruction in veins of the retina is called retinal vein obstruction, while obstruction in arteries of the retina is called retinal arterial obstruction.Figure 1. Fundus photography of a patient diagnosed with branch retinal vein occlusion (left). Fundus photography of a patient who received argon laser photocoagulation treatment for branch retinal vein occlusion at our hospital.RISK FACTORS AND CAUSES: Retinal vein obstructions mostly occur between the ages of 50 and 60. Patients with hypertension, arteriosclerosis, coagulation problems, and diabetes are at risk. Retinal artery obstructions are generally caused by a minor embolus (coagulum) in the blood circulation. High blood and cholesterol values, cardiac diseases, arteriosclerosis, systemic hypertension and diabetes are among the risk factors for retinal arterial obstruction.Figure 2. Fundus appearance of central retinal vein occlusion…
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Refractive Laser Surgery

Patients who suffer from myopes, hypermetropy, astigmatism can get rid of their contact lenses and glasses permanently with femtosecond laser aided intraocular lens surgery.In our hospital, all the diagnostic devices that are concerned with refractive surgery including femtosecond laser, excimer laser are present. Treatment for each individual patient is decided after extensive eye check-up along with special diagnoses concerning laser and lens surgery in accord with the patient’s expectation and applied by our experienced doctors.Breakage defects are divided into four categories: myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Figure 1. Demonstration of differernt types of refractive surgery.In myopia, the anterior-to-posterior diameter of an eye is longer than the breakage power of the eye, so beams coming into the eye focus on a point before the retina. People with myopia see close-range clearly, while they cannot see the far images clearly. In hyperopia, the anterior-to-posterior…
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Vitrectomy Surgery

Vitrectomy surgeries include cleaning the gel-like material filling the eye (vitreous) and related operations. Vitrectomy is accepted as a treatment method for a number.Figure 1. Fundus photography of a patient treated with the diagnosis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy prior to argon laser  (left) and following the treatment (right). The pale white dots on the retinal photograph below are laser spots.of visual diseases. These diseases may include intraocular bleeding, advanced-stage retinopathies due to diabetes, macular hole, macular lines, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign objects, infections after visual surgeries, falling of the lens into the eye, intraocular tumors, and advanced-stage premature retinopathies. The operation is made through three holes opened in the white part of the eye after it is anesthetized or after general anesthesia from the side of the eye.  These three holes are used to inject sterile fluid into the eye, illumination, and to perform the…
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Macular Edema

DEFINITION: The macular edema center is one of the most common causes of loss of vision. In the macula, liquid is accumulated in the retina. Edema takes the form of intra-retinal cysts, and this is called cystoid macular edema. When edema develops, the central vision of the patient is disrupted.RISK FACTORS AND CAUSES: It may be related to cataract surgery, macular degeneration due to aging, uveitis, diabetes, retinal embolism, or medication toxicity. Following cataract surgey, cystoid macular edema, with a possibility of 1-3%, emerges occurs 2-4 months within 1 year.Figure 1. Macular optical coherence tomography image of a healthy eye.FINDINGS: It is characterized by blurred vision and reduced central vision. However, since this clinical picture is not unique to any specific disease, the ophthalmologist should carry out an examination in detail for diagnosis.DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: Diagnosis can be made through eye examination.  The most common diagnosis method is to examine the bottom…
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Epiretinal Membrane

DEFINITION: In front of the macular area enabling central vision, a shiny and transparent membrane-like tissue develops over time. This is called the epiretinal membrane or epimacular membrane.Figure 1. Preoperative (left) and postoperative (middle) optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of a patient operated with the diagnosis of epiretinal membrane at our hospital. Macula OCT image of a healthy individual (right).RISK FACTORS: In most epiretinal membrane cases, there are no accompanying eye diseases; it may emerge with  advanced age (idiopathic epiretinal membrane). In some cases, it may develop after retinal detachment, retinal vessel diseases, eye trauma, intraocular inflammations, retinal laser treatment, and vitreoretinal surgery (secondary epiretinal membrane).FINDINGS: The most common finding is the decrease in visual sharpness. Other important findings are seeing objects differently to how they are, for instance faulted (metamorphopsia), bigger (macropsia), or smaller…
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