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Eye Conditions and Treatments

Retinal Detachment

DEFINITION: By covering the internal part of the eye, the retina is the layer which communicates with the brain (the network layer) by signalling the vision through the optic nerve. The vitreous, which fills the inside of the eye is of a gel consistency and with ageing or as a result of some eye diseases, it loses the properties of vitreous tissue and starts to liquefy. As a result, the retina separates from its points of attachment. Most of the time, no problems develop during this process, but occasionally during this separation, one or more areas of the retina may be torn. The liquefied vitreous passing from these torn areas may separate from the retinal layer and the disease known as retinal detachment develops. Vision is permanently severely affected and thus this disease must be treated promptly.Figure 1. Fundus photography of a patient diagnosed with regmatogen retinal detachment (left) and the other healthy eye of the same patient (right).CAUSES and RISK FACTORS: The most significant…
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Glaucoma Treatmens

Disruption to the internal eye fluid or increased resistance to the external flow results in internal pressure more than the eye can tolerate and thereby a group of diseases characterised by irreversible damage to the optic nerve.  In open nagle tyoe glaucoma, the disease gives no indications until the advanced stage at which vision loss develops. The progressive course of the disease is generally slow and initially the patient is not aware of impairments in the field of vision. Figure 1. Filtering bleb of trabeculectomy 12 months after surgery.In acute closed angle type glaucoma the prevention of internal eye fluid circulation results in high levels of internal eye pressure. In these cases, clouded vision, coloured circles around light, severe pain in and around the eye, redness of the eye and nausea and vomiting may be seen. In congenital glaucoma cases, there are findings of watering of the eyes, large diameter cornea and loss of clarity.The risk factors in primary open…
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Cataract

DEFINITION: Cataract is the blurring of the eye lens after losing its transparency.Figure 1. Demonstration of a healthy eye (left), an eye with cataract (middle) and steps of phacoemulsification surgery (right)CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS: The most common type of this disease is that which is due to aging. There are also other types accompanying systemic diseases like diabetes, myotonic dystrophia, atopic dermatitis, and neurofibromatosis-2. Secondary cataracts can be seen in eye diseases: chronic uveitis, acute angle closure glaucoma, high myopia, and hereditary fundus dystrophia. Secondary cataracts can also be found in eye traumas due to some systemic medications. There are genetic cataracts and congenital cataracts. In such cases, underlying systemic diseases should be investigated.Figure 2. Anterior segment appearance of a patient diagnosed with mature cataract prior to surgery (left), following phocoemulsification and multifocal intraocular lens implnatation (right).TREATMENT: The treatment…
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Injections Of Medication Into Eye

Injections into the vitreous made in order for the medication to directly reach the eye are called intravitreal injections.Injecting medication into the vitreous has many important advantages. Even an intravitreal medication given in quite a small dose rapidly reaches the desired tissue. Since the application is made into the eye, it has a very small chance of adversely affecting other tissues of the body. The administered amount is very small and the rate of mixing into the bloodstream is quite low. Most patients are afraid of having their eye injected. Actually injection only takes a few seconds and does not cause any pain because it is carried out with very thin needles.  The operation starts with the application of local anesthetic drops to anesthetize the tissues.  A small amount of anesthetic medication is administered into the injection point with a thin needle. Later the medication is injected. The most important risk of this operation is an intraocular infection…
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Ptosis (Looseness Of The Eyelid)

DEFINITION: It is the looseness of the eyelid due to a malfunction of the muscle supporting the eyelid congenitally or later in life.Figure 1. Preoperative (left) and postoperative (right) external appearance of patient operated with the diagnosis of congenital ptosis at our hospital.CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS: The eyelid may move downward due to a developmental disorder of the eyelid muscle, palsy of the nerves here, detachment of the muscle because of aging or the mechanical effect of  masses in the eyelid.FINDINGS: Findings change according to the cause of the eyelid looseness. In congenital ptosis, both opening and closing the eyelid are dysfunctional, while in ptosis caused by aging, only opening the eyelid is dysfunctional. In both cases, the eye seems as if it is smaller.Figure 2. Preoperative (left) and postoperative (right) external appearance of patient operated with the diagnosis of  senile ptosis at our hospital.DIAGNOSIS: There is a standard measuring method to measure…
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