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Eye Conditions and Treatments

Blepharoshalasis Dermatochalases

DEFINITION: It is the loosening and slackening of eyelids because of bulking of eyelids in the form of attacks (blepharoshalasis) or loosening of eyelid tissues due to aging (dermathochalases).CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS: It often occurs due to aging.DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is made through physical examination.TREATMENT: Treatment is carried out by surgically removing the slackened skin or removing some of the fat moving forward, if any.Figure 1. External appearance of a patients operated with the diagnosis of dermatochalasis prior to surgery (left) and 1 month following surgery (right).

Yellow Spot Disease (ARMD)

Age-related Macular DegenerationThis disease occurs in the macula (yellow spot) - the central viewing point of the eye.Figure 1. Demonstration of dry and wet types of senile macular degeneration.It is known as yellow spot disease colloquially. It has two types: wet and dry. The dry type is more common. This disease is characterized by the emergence of yellow-colored accumulations called drusen. It is slow in progress. Vision is slowly disrupted over the years. The wet type constitutes 10-15% of the patients and it may cause sudden and serious loss of vision. This disease is characterized by the formation of new vessels underneath the retina. If these vessels are not treated, they destroy the visual cells in the retina, thus causing an irreversible loss of vision.Figure 2. Preoperative (upper) and postoperative (lower) optical coherence tomogaphy images of a patient who received anti-VEGF injection for wet age-related macular degeneration.The basic risk factor is advanced age. It is more…

Retinal Embolism

DEFINITION: There is a wide-ranging vascular system consisting of arteries and veins in the retina. Obstruction in veins of the retina is called retinal vein obstruction, while obstruction in arteries of the retina is called retinal arterial obstruction.Figure 1. Fundus photography of a patient diagnosed with branch retinal vein occlusion (left). Fundus photography of a patient who received argon laser photocoagulation treatment for branch retinal vein occlusion at our hospital.RISK FACTORS AND CAUSES: Retinal vein obstructions mostly occur between the ages of 50 and 60. Patients with hypertension, arteriosclerosis, coagulation problems, and diabetes are at risk. Retinal artery obstructions are generally caused by a minor embolus (coagulum) in the blood circulation. High blood and cholesterol values, cardiac diseases, arteriosclerosis, systemic hypertension and diabetes are among the risk factors for retinal arterial obstruction.Figure 2. Fundus appearance of central retinal vein occlusion…

Macular Edema

DEFINITION: The macular edema center is one of the most common causes of loss of vision. In the macula, liquid is accumulated in the retina. Edema takes the form of intra-retinal cysts, and this is called cystoid macular edema. When edema develops, the central vision of the patient is disrupted.RISK FACTORS AND CAUSES: It may be related to cataract surgery, macular degeneration due to aging, uveitis, diabetes, retinal embolism, or medication toxicity. Following cataract surgey, cystoid macular edema, with a possibility of 1-3%, emerges occurs 2-4 months within 1 year.Figure 1. Macular optical coherence tomography image of a healthy eye.FINDINGS: It is characterized by blurred vision and reduced central vision. However, since this clinical picture is not unique to any specific disease, the ophthalmologist should carry out an examination in detail for diagnosis.DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: Diagnosis can be made through eye examination.  The most common diagnosis method is to examine the bottom…

Refractive Laser Surgery

Patients who suffer from myopes, hypermetropy, astigmatism can get rid of their contact lenses and glasses permanently with femtosecond laser aided intraocular lens surgery.In our hospital, all the diagnostic devices that are concerned with refractive surgery including femtosecond laser, excimer laser are present. Treatment for each individual patient is decided after extensive eye check-up along with special diagnoses concerning laser and lens surgery in accord with the patient’s expectation and applied by our experienced doctors.Breakage defects are divided into four categories: myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Figure 1. Demonstration of differernt types of refractive surgery.In myopia, the anterior-to-posterior diameter of an eye is longer than the breakage power of the eye, so beams coming into the eye focus on a point before the retina. People with myopia see close-range clearly, while they cannot see the far images clearly. In hyperopia, the anterior-to-posterior…
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