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Eye Conditions and Treatments

Intraocular Bleddings

DEFINITION: These are the bleedings in the jelly-like fluid (vitreous) inside the eye.RISK FACTORS AND CAUSES: Diabetic retinopathy due to diabetes, retinal embolism, retinal ruptures, hypertension, retinal vacular diseases, and eye injuries are among the most common causes.Figure 1. Posterior segment appearance of a patient diagnosed with intraocular hemorrhage secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (left).  B-scan ultrasound image of a patient diagnosed with dense vitreous hemorrhage.FINDINGS: Sudden loss of vision or decrease in vision and web-like floaters before the eye may occur depending on the severity of the bleeding.DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: The disease is easily detected through retinal examination (ophthalmoscopy). The most frequently used method to obtain detailed information about the cause of the bleeding is ocular ultrasonography.TREATMENT: Vitrectomy operation is carried when there is long-term bleeding or at an early period depending on the underlying cause. Bleeding…

Glaucoma Treatmens

Disruption to the internal eye fluid or increased resistance to the external flow results in internal pressure more than the eye can tolerate and thereby a group of diseases characterised by irreversible damage to the optic nerve.  In open nagle tyoe glaucoma, the disease gives no indications until the advanced stage at which vision loss develops. The progressive course of the disease is generally slow and initially the patient is not aware of impairments in the field of vision. Figure 1. Filtering bleb of trabeculectomy 12 months after surgery.In acute closed angle type glaucoma the prevention of internal eye fluid circulation results in high levels of internal eye pressure. In these cases, clouded vision, coloured circles around light, severe pain in and around the eye, redness of the eye and nausea and vomiting may be seen. In congenital glaucoma cases, there are findings of watering of the eyes, large diameter cornea and loss of clarity.The risk factors in primary open…

Ptosis (Looseness Of The Eyelid)

DEFINITION: It is the looseness of the eyelid due to a malfunction of the muscle supporting the eyelid congenitally or later in life.Figure 1. Preoperative (left) and postoperative (right) external appearance of patient operated with the diagnosis of congenital ptosis at our hospital.CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS: The eyelid may move downward due to a developmental disorder of the eyelid muscle, palsy of the nerves here, detachment of the muscle because of aging or the mechanical effect of  masses in the eyelid.FINDINGS: Findings change according to the cause of the eyelid looseness. In congenital ptosis, both opening and closing the eyelid are dysfunctional, while in ptosis caused by aging, only opening the eyelid is dysfunctional. In both cases, the eye seems as if it is smaller.Figure 2. Preoperative (left) and postoperative (right) external appearance of patient operated with the diagnosis of  senile ptosis at our hospital.DIAGNOSIS: There is a standard measuring method to measure…

Retinal Embolism

DEFINITION: There is a wide-ranging vascular system consisting of arteries and veins in the retina. Obstruction in veins of the retina is called retinal vein obstruction, while obstruction in arteries of the retina is called retinal arterial obstruction.Figure 1. Fundus photography of a patient diagnosed with branch retinal vein occlusion (left). Fundus photography of a patient who received argon laser photocoagulation treatment for branch retinal vein occlusion at our hospital.RISK FACTORS AND CAUSES: Retinal vein obstructions mostly occur between the ages of 50 and 60. Patients with hypertension, arteriosclerosis, coagulation problems, and diabetes are at risk. Retinal artery obstructions are generally caused by a minor embolus (coagulum) in the blood circulation. High blood and cholesterol values, cardiac diseases, arteriosclerosis, systemic hypertension and diabetes are among the risk factors for retinal arterial obstruction.Figure 2. Fundus appearance of central retinal vein occlusion…

Refractive Laser Surgery

Patients who suffer from myopes, hypermetropy, astigmatism can get rid of their contact lenses and glasses permanently with femtosecond laser aided intraocular lens surgery.In our hospital, all the diagnostic devices that are concerned with refractive surgery including femtosecond laser, excimer laser are present. Treatment for each individual patient is decided after extensive eye check-up along with special diagnoses concerning laser and lens surgery in accord with the patient’s expectation and applied by our experienced doctors.Breakage defects are divided into four categories: myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Figure 1. Demonstration of differernt types of refractive surgery.In myopia, the anterior-to-posterior diameter of an eye is longer than the breakage power of the eye, so beams coming into the eye focus on a point before the retina. People with myopia see close-range clearly, while they cannot see the far images clearly. In hyperopia, the anterior-to-posterior…